Linus Pauling and colleagues were the first, in 1949, to demonstrate that sickle cell anemia occurs as a result of abnormalities in the hemoglobin molecule. This is the first time a genetic disease has been linked to a specific protein mutation, a milestone in the history of molecular biology, and is published in the paper "Sickle cell anemia". The origins of the mutation leading to the sickle cell gene were originally thought to be in the Peninsula, spreading to Asia and Africa. It is now known, from the evaluation of chromosome structures, that there were at least four independent mutational events, three in Africa and the fourth in Saudi Arabia or Central India.
The characteristics of anemia:
1. Pale Eyelids
It's easy to detect anemia by looking at your eyes. When you stretch your eyelids and pay attention to the bottom of the eye. You will notice that the inside of the eyelids is pale.
2. Often Fatigue
If you feel tired all the time for a month or more, you may have a low red blood cell count. The energy supply of the body is highly dependent on oxidation and red blood cells. The lower the red blood cells, the level of oxidation in the body decreases.
3. Frequent nausea
Those with anemia often experience symptoms of morning sickness or nausea as soon as they get out of bed.
People who have anemia often complain of constant headaches. Lack of red blood makes the brain lack oxygen. This often causes headaches.
5. Fingertips Pale
When you press the tip of your finger, the area will turn red. However, if you have anemia, your fingertips may turn white or pale.
6. Shortness of breath
A low blood count lowers the oxygen level in the body. This makes people with anemia often feel short of breath or often gasping for breath when doing daily activities such as walking.
7. Irregular Heart Rate
Palpitations is the medical term for an irregular heartbeat, too strong or having an abnormal speed. When the body is deprived of oxygen, the heart rate increases. This causes the heart to beat irregularly and quickly.
8. Pale face
If you have anemia, your face will look pale. The skin will also become yellowish white.
9. Hair loss
Hair loss can be a symptom of anemia. When your scalp doesn't get enough nourishment from your body, you will experience rapid hair thinning.
10. Decreased Immunity
When your body has very little energy, the body's immunity or ability to fight disease decreases. You will easily fall sick or become tired.
Causes & Risk Factors:
Blood is made up of plasma and cells. There are three types of blood cells:
White blood cells (leukocytes). These blood cells are useful for fighting infection.
Platelets / blood plates. These blood cells help to clot the blood when injured.
White blood cells (erythrocytes). These red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs through the bloodstream to the brain and other organs and tissues.
The body needs a supply of oxygen to function. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin which is an iron-like protein that gives it its red color.
Many blood cells are produced by the spinal cord. To be able to produce red blood cells and hemoglobin, your body needs iron, minerals, protein and other vitamins from the food you eat.
Causes of Anemia (Lack of Blood)
Anemia occurs when the body produces too few red blood cells, loses too many red blood cells or shuts down more red blood cells rather than replacing them. Some types of anemia and their causes are:
Iron deficiency anemia
The cause of this type of anemia is a lack of iron in the body. Bone marrow needs iron to make hemoglobin. Without enough iron, the body won't produce enough hemoglobin for red blood cells.
Vitamin deficiency anemia
In addition to iron, the body also needs folate and vitamin B-12 to produce enough red blood cells. A diet low in these and other essential nutrients can cause a decrease in the production of red blood cells. In addition, some people cannot effectively absorb vitamin B-12.
Anemia of chronic disease
Certain chronic diseases, for example cancer and HIV / AIDS. May affect red blood cell production, resulting in chronic anemia. Kidney failure can also cause anemia.
This type is extremely rare and is a life-threatening condition. This is caused by the reduced ability of the spinal cord to produce all three types of blood cells. The cause is unknown.
Anemias associated with bone marrow disease
Conditions such as leukemia and myelodysplasia can cause anemia which causes reduced blood production in the spinal cord.
This occurs when the red blood cells are destroyed faster and the spinal cord is unable to keep up with producing replacement red blood cells. Certain diseases such as blood disorders can be the cause. And autoimmune disorders can cause the body to produce antibodies against red blood cells, thereby destroying red blood cells.
Sickle cell anemia
This type of anemia is caused by a defect in the form of hemoglobin that causes red blood cells to form like sickles. These red blood cells die prematurely and lead to a chronic lack of red blood cells.
This type of anemia is different from others, including thalassemia and anemia caused by hemoglobin defects.
Risk factors for anemia:
Several factors that may increase your chances of developing anemia include:
Low nutrient intake in food.
Small bowel health problems or surgery involving the small intestine.
Chronic conditions such as cancer, kidney failure or liver failure.
Certain infections such as blood and autoimmune disorders, exposure to chemical toxins, and taking some drugs that affect the production of red blood cells and cause anemia.
Other risks include diabetes, alcohol and people who are strict vegetarians and have insufficient intake of iron or vitamin B-12 in their diet.
Many types of anemia cannot be prevented. But you can help avoid iron deficiency anemia and vitamin deficiency anemia with a healthy diet that contains:
Can be found in meat. Other types are nuts, dark green vegetables, dried fruit, and so on.
Can be found in oranges, bananas, dark green vegetables, beans, cereals and pasta.
3. Vitamin B-12
This vitamin is found in meat and milk.
4. Vitamin C
Vitamin C helps iron absorption. Foods that contain vitamin C include oranges, melons and berries.
Foods that contain iron are important for those who need high iron, such as children, menstruating women and pregnant women. Adequate iron is also important for babies, vegetarians and athletes.
How to deal with anemia:
Foods with Iron
Anemia usually results from a lack of iron. Hemoglobin is composed of iron and protein. Therefore, in order for the hemoglobin count to remain stable, you need to consume foods rich in iron, such as spinach and other green leafy vegetables, liver, brown rice, dates, grapes, etc.
Apples are also a rich source of iron. Apart from containing vitamins and minerals, apples are proven to increase hemoglobin levels so that you avoid anemia.
Other healthy foods that can prevent anemia are tubers, such as sweet potatoes. Not only rich in folic acid and potassium, sweet potatoes also contain fiber which is good for digestion. You can process it by boiling, making compote, or even as a juice mixture.
Since ancient times, honey has been believed to be a cure for all diseases, including anemia. Apart from being rich in iron, honey also contains other important vitamins and minerals. You can use honey as a mixture of various types of food to increase hemoglobin levels. That's why honey is one of the most effective natural remedies for treating anemia.
Banana fruit is proven to be rich in iron, potassium and vitamins and minerals. Consuming a banana every day is not only for curing anemia but also for other health benefits. It is also one of the easiest ways to treat anemia.
Dandelion or commonly known as Randa Tapak is useful in the absorption of iron that you consume through food or supplements. Besides dandelion, another alternative that you can try is herbal tea.
Consuming fruits rich in vitamin C such as oranges, pineapples, strawberries and tomatoes helps in the absorption of iron in the blood. These fruits are useful for fighting anemia and also preventing the emergence of various diseases due to anemia.
Dates are rich in iron, vitamin C, vitamin B complex, and antioxidants. This fruit is the best medicine to cure anemia. Boil dates and milk, then drink it regularly every day.
Another way you can treat anemia is by consuming brown sugar. Brown sugar is rich in iron and increases hemoglobin levels if consumed every day. You can mix it with tea or as a food sweetener.
This fruit is a food source that is rich in vitamin C and lycopene. Vitamin C helps in the absorption of iron in the blood. By drinking tomato juice regularly, your anemia problem will quickly resolve.
Take a cold shower
Bathing in cold water will improve blood circulation. As a result, your body temperature will be reset and symptoms of anemia can be resolved.
That is what I explain about the causes, characteristics, and ways of dealing with anemia that you need to know in order to always keep your body healthy from this one disease in a proven and effective traditional way. Happy trying it at home and hopefully the information is useful for all of you.