Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite called Plasmodium. This disease is carried by the Anopheles mosquito infected with the parasite, so that it can infect humans who were bitten by the mosquito. If the parasite has entered the human body, the Plasmodium parasite multiplies in the liver and then infects red blood cells. Until now, there are four types of plasmodium that can infect humans, namely Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium falciparum. However, plasmodium falciparum is the most dangerous and can be life threatening. Patients infected with malaria show early symptoms that resemble influenza, but if left untreated, complications will occur that lead to death. Malaria occurs mostly in tropical and subtropical areas because the Plasmodium parasite can thrive as well as the Anopheles mosquito vector. As in Africa and Papua New Guinea, Oceania is an area that is heavily affected by malaria. About 300-500 million people are infected and about 1 million people die from this disease every year, 90% of deaths occur in Africa, especially in children.
Causes of Malaria:
Malaria is caused by parasites which are in the plasmodium group. The main media that spreads this disease are female Anopheles mosquitoes. This mosquito is infected by the plasmodium parasite from a bite made on someone who is already infected with the parasite. The mosquito will be infected for one week until the next meal. When eating, this mosquito bites another person and simultaneously injects the plasmodium parasite into the person's blood so that the person will be infected with malaria.
There are 4 types of plasmodium that can infect humans, including:
- Plasmodium ovale
- Plasmodium malariae
- Plasmodium falciparum
- Plasmodium vivax
Symptoms of Malaria
Symptoms of malaria can be divided into 2 parts in terms of severity. The symptoms are as follows.
A. Symptoms of Mild Malaria (Malaria without Complications)
Patients with malaria generally experience fever and chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches, and aches. In mild malaria symptoms, it can be divided into 3 stages, namely as follows.
1. Cold Stadium
In the cold stage, the patient feels extreme cold and shivering, the pulse feels faster but weak, lips and fingers look bluish, dry skin, vomiting that occurs approximately 15 minutes to 1 hour.
2. Stage of fever
At this stage the sufferer feels hot, red face, dry skin, vomits and the head feels very painful. Body temperature usually reaches 40 degrees Celsius or more. Sometimes sufferers experience seizures. These symptoms usually last 2 to 4 hours.
3. Stadium sweating
Sweating stage, that is, people with malaria always sweat, the body temperature is below average so that the body temperature becomes cold. Due to frequent sweating, he usually feels thirsty and his body is very weak.
B. Symptoms of Severe Malaria (Malaria with Complications)
Patients who fall into this criteria are usually very weak. Severe malaria can be detected by performing a laboratory examination of the peripheral blood joints and the patient also has the following complications.
- Unconscious sometimes into a coma
- Often delirious
- Talk wrong (uncontrolled)
- Body temperature is very high
- Rapid breathing, shortness of breath
Malaria is spread by nyamuh, so we must maintain personal hygiene and the surrounding environment so that no mosquitoes can breed. If you are visiting places that are known for malaria, take the drug Chloroquine which functions to prevent the entry of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum into the body.
How to Treat Malaria
1. Modern Way
If you get malaria, try to treat it quickly by taking it to a doctor who specializes in malaria. If it is in the hands of a doctor, of course it will be quickly treated, but what if you are in a remote place and very far from the doctor's place, you can use traditional methods
2. The Traditional Way
Traditional methods can be used as an alternative if there are obstacles to seeing a doctor. For traditional treatment it is very easy to use "Papaya Leaves". Make no mistake, papaya leaves are also very effective in treating malaria. The trick is to prepare some papaya leaves then boil and drink the water 3 times a day. Do this regularly every day and be sure that you will recover.
That is the explanation of how to treat malaria and its causes that you really need to know so you don't get this very frightening disease because if you get this disease it can cause death.